12/30/2015 The Origin of the Cyber-War:China

If you've ever heard about cyberwar, and the big players of this like China, Russia, USA, among others, I found an interesting article checking my timeline of twitter in which a Chinese blog tells how China has been in this field,  remember that source is written by someone that we don't know, so you're the final analist.
The Article consists of three parts:

Hope you enjoy the reading, and happy new year to every reader of the blog. 
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12/05/2015 Open Science for my Article of Communications Techniques Class at UTP

Maybe one of the most important thing in the world is how we talk to each other, it seems that sometimes there are communications  barriers and develop and improve an  effective communication toolset(skills in the end) can't be done inside a class, you need to put in practice some tips, tricks given in the classroom outside of it, because your body is always communicating.

So this blog post is not going to be about computer security or relate it, it's my invitation to you to read and article written by me and my fellow Sebastian Zapata this was and assignment in the communication techniques class meet the following requirements :
  1. Read and use the arguments of  the textbook 'Redacción Técnica '
  2. Write an article based on the image below, and release the article under Open Science movement [1]
  3. Use  the American Psychological Association rules.
Fig.2 scientific method, Spanish Version.
So here is a short summary of our work done :

Fig.2 Work done, Ascendent order
You will find this article in tex and pdf format in the next link :
Articulo de Técnicas Comunicación [Full Text in Spanish]

See you next
[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_scienceOpen science is the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional. It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge

Due to this research , I've had problems with some professors and teachers they claim that I'm evil and a destroyer for reveal potential risks to the public, meanwhile I don't think about this as a problem because it exist inside the campus and  that's happening in other national campus around Colombia, This shows how bad prepared are the professionals who manages network of the university, without generalizing of course.

I stopped working with the professor of electrical technology for this.

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11/30/2015 Programming Contest

Programming Contest are not very different to Capture the Flag, as you know a CTF is a special kind of information security competitions where categories can be Web, Forensics, Crypto, Binary, or something else, The main Idea  is solve challenges, meanwhile Programming Contest is the same but here I can notice clearly an academic approach which includes mathematics , physics, statistics, data structures, and other topics that maybe I don't know yet, This entrance is to express How I feel in my first Programming Contest sponsored by RPC (Red de Programación Competitiva).

As always I was late at the event, starting at 1 p.m of 28 day of November, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira was the host of this competition, the idea of me participating in this contest was to know more about how it is,What kind of problems I need to face in the future, and the most important if it's funny because if you don't like this just quit out.

My team was conformed by two  more people Leiver a fellow class of the operations research and a new friend that certainly looked pretty smart Sebastian, both of them have a lot of experience in this kind of competitions, is obviously that a team is a conformation to speak also It was to generate synergy, new ideas, discuss problems, and share knowledge in how to solve this or that problem, but that did not happen here apparently I do not know many issues, nor have methods in mind I just could think myself in the problems and maybe share my thoughts, because that was the only thing that happened. To me this experiment was interesting because I'm confident with myself that I need to learn much more, and  increase my expertise in Computer programming, of course there is a goal behind this,and it needs to be part of my personal toolkit as a hacker.

Things that I learn :

If you're going to use c++ you can use this trick,
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
There is no need to include any other header files here and it's interesting because in stack overflow there is a question related to this :
How does #include <bits/stdc++.h> work in C++?
It is basically a header file that also includes every standard library and stl include file. The only purpose I can see for it would be for testing and education, please refer to https://gist.github.com/eduarc/6022859 to see an example, I don't exactly know if it's true that this increase the compilation time
trick  that didn't make sense to me was use:

#define fast ios_base::sync_with_stdio(false);cin.tie(NULL)

And It simply optimize cin and cout by making its execution faster, using a kind of syncronization; Off course participants in this competition like in the Ctf's Wargames, need to practice, practice, and practice to get a decent standard math and programming level, here we need to know what type of problem is, and based on that we can use one or other method, something funny to me was when the competition runs out of time everybody was talking about a DP, P,Complexity,Graphs, that was blowing my mind...Something new in this short weekend.

Stay tune !
[2]Competitive Programming
[3]Key Advantage of Competitive Programming
[4]PicoCTF: A Game-Based Computer Security Competitionfor High School Students
[1]Developing Small Team-based Cyber SecurityExercises 
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11/28/2015 Linux Kernel, Security or Myth?

Recently I was reading an interesting interview who Craig Timberg made to Torvalds. Clearly the principal argument in the interview is the increase of known vulnerabilities in the linux Kernel and obviously the mindset of the lead developer of Linux, who is arguing that security is another concern more.

Even more broadly, the battle over Linux security is a fight over the future of the online world. At a time when leading computer scientists are debating whether the Internet is so broken that it needs to be replaced, the network is expanding faster than ever, layering flaw upon flaw in an ever-expanding web of insecurity. Perhaps the best hope for fixing this, some experts argue, lies in changing the operating system that — more than any other — controls these machines.

Kernel Security is pretty important right now and if you don't believe in that check the statistics in android's phone usage, also you can take a quick Look at a few recent kernel security holes that has been discovered Buffer Overflows, initialization failures and the list goes on. The point is that been Torvalds the king of geeks he is obviously going to be the king of the bad guys if they don't review properly commits and new patches, security is above usability or I think so, that's why Security of Linux even as it became a bigger is more important, but seriously Torvalds just said that People in security is just too paranoid.I remember when  long time ago Linux in its early days was widely considered a safer choice than Windows or other commercial operating systems, but now it has been disappear slowly. I have to say that not all problems did not involve the kernel itself, but they're there, and it's becoming a popular target for hackers building “botnets,” and the companies that sell them surveillance tools like Finfisher.

Could be The Kernel Security taking as a relevant topic ?

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5/18/2015 Before you learn to code, think about what you want to code...

Checking Quora I found an answer pointing out to this nice article [1], so I would like to keep this in mind.
Knowing how to code is mostly about building things, and the path is a lot clearer when you have a sense of the end goal. If your goal is “learn to code,” without a clear idea of the kinds of programs you will write and how they will make your life better, you will probably find it a frustrating exercise.
I’m a little ashamed to admit that part of my motivation for studying computer science was that I wanted to prove I was smart, and I wanted to be able to get Smart Person jobs. I also liked thinking about math and theory (this book blew my mind at an impressionable age) and the program was a good fit. It wasn’t enough to sustain me for long, though, until I found ways to connect technology to the things I really loved, like music and literature.
So, what do you want to code? Websites? Games? iPhone apps? A startup that makes you rich? Interactive art? Do you want to be able to impress your boss or automate a tedious task so you can spend more time looking at otter pictures? Perhaps you simply want to be more employable, add a buzzword to your resume, or fulfill the requirements of your educational program. All of these are worthy goals. Make sure you know which one is yours, and study accordingly.

Cecilly Carver
[1] https://medium.com/@cecilycarver/things-i-wish-someone-had-told-me-when-i-was-learning-how-to-code-565fc9dcb329

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5/04/2015 Filters with the IPV4 Address Space Assignment to .CO

It has been a long time since I wrote my last blog post, Just a little busy with the job and my university but this last weekend I was having a rest time, meanwhile I's reading about Ipv6 addressing tips for ISP's [1] I was wondering why I didn't play with the Lacnic assignments in the past, sometimes you just learn how internet in general works and you can go more deeper than it is.The Ipv4 assignments could be used to scan and check for new vulnerabities[2][3] inside a specific area or territory of the world.

Trying to get more information about Colombian's ip assignments we know that internet is a big number of connections between different AS, ASs are generally Internet service providers but can also be large companies, universities, and other such organizations who act as independent entities on the Internet. These AS's are responsible for assigning individual IP addresses and routing traffic from individual machines out to and in from the wider Internet, So we want to get more information about the Ipv4 assignments and the best way to get this is going to the primary source for IP address data and it's the regional Internet registries which allocate and distribute IP addresses through organizations located in their respective service regions, This regions are:

  1. African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC)
  2. American Registry for Internet Numbers(ARIN)
  3. Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC)
  4. Latin American and Caribbean Internet Address Registry (LACNIC)
  5. RIPE Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)

According to wikipedia the main aims are to :
  • Protect the unallocated IP number resource pool,
  • Promote and protect the bottom-up policy development process of the Internet, and
  • Act as a focal point for Internet community input into the RIf system.
Every Regional Internet registry has it's own ftp service sharing information related to the assignments [5] and also a mirror of the other RI'r.
As it's shown in the picture you can see all the content inside the /pub (public folder)
Checking all the directory structure, assignments are in /pub/stats/region
In my case I'm interest in all the IP addressing assignments by Lacnic and specifically my country Colombia.

Just get delegated-lacnic-extended-latest and delegated-lacnic-extended-latest.md5 files wich are that contains all the information That we  need to play with, also notice the update history and the date in the ftp.

Getting files to play with
So these files contains all the Latinamerican assignments including the next countries:

You can get this result running a simple filter and cat I like the bash way so here it is :
cat delegated-lacnic-extended-latest|cut -d '|' -f  2|sort |uniq >country
cat country 
Grepping by Country:

Now to get the information in what we're interests we need to filter our file by country and IPv4 the file itself has a 8 column format as is explained above:

Column 1:Regional Internet registry (Lacnic in this case)
Column 2:Country Code (CO)
Column 3:Ip Class,Type Resource (ASN,IPV4,IPV6)
Column 4:Network Begin
Column 5:Ip Address Quantity
Column 6:Assignment Date.
Column 7:Organization Type
Column 8: unknow for me.
cat delegated-lacnic-extended-latest | grep -i "CO|IPV4"
and after that we get something like this :
We can get 375 entries but how many ipv4 addresses are assigned to CO in total?
off course this could be done filtering the 5 column and the IP to ASN Mapping Project

Team Cymru provides a number of query interfaces that allow for the mapping of IP addresses to BGP prefixes and Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs), based on BGP feeds from our 50+ BGP peers, and updated every 4 hours. This data is available through traditional WHOIS (TCP 43), DNS (UDP 53), HTTP (TCP 80), and HTTPS (TCP 443). For more information on the data available, and how to query, check out our IP to ASN Mapping Project.dding line per line in order to get the total number.
$$ \sum _{ i=0 }^{ 375 }{eachlinei }$$
cat Colombia.txt |cut -d '|' -f5 |awk '{s+=$1} END {printf "%.0f", s}'

17.263.593 in IPv4 assignments to Colombian Country until the last update of file.

In this amount of IPv4 Addresses we will be pretty interest in entities that don't waste  time and money searching for you generally this type of entities are non-goverment such as universities, public schools but always without goverment asociation.Offcourse we can use a service to query for some basic AS information directly and for this I'm going to use the Team Cymru's nslookup.

The IP to ASN Mapping Project 
Team Cymru provides a number of query interfaces that allow for the mapping of IP addresses to BGP prefixes and Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs), based on BGP feeds from our 50+ BGP peers, and updated every 4 hours. This data is available through traditional WHOIS (TCP 43), DNS (UDP 53), HTTP (TCP 80), and HTTPS (TCP 443). For more information on the data available, and how to query, check out our IP to ASN Mapping Project.
Follow the steps given in the official website, using netcat is a better way to get this information, you can filter out the ips addresses using the next :

grep  -i 'ipv4\|ipv6' Colombia.txt|cut -d '|' -f4 >ipsColombia.txt
Maybe the previous won't work because you need to map an IPv6 address or prefix to a corresponding BGP Origin ASN.if you just want the ipv4 version :
grep  -i 'ipv4' Colombia.txt|cut -d '|' -f4 >ipsColombia.txt

then add the begin and end word to the file.
netcat whois.cymru.com 43 < ipsColombia.txt | sort -n > asninfo.txt  #ipv4, and ipv6

I hope that this information could be useful , cheers

[1] http://portalipv6.lacnic.net/en/ipv6-addressing-tips-for-isps/
[2] http://www.sinfocol.org/2015/03/freak-on-colombian-domain-names-and-heartbleed-one-year-later/
[3] http://www.mcafee.com/us/resources/reviews/esg-vulnerability-manager.pdf
[4] http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/netmaps/methods.php
[5] ftp://ftp.lacnic.net/pub/stats
[6] http://www.team-cymru.org/IP-ASN-mapping.html
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1/24/2015 What Happends When...

Checking the github feed  I just found this nice link that you should read if you want to be more concious when you press the enter button:

Enjoy it:

This repository is an attempt to answer the age old interview question "What happens when you type google.com into your browser's address box and press enter?"

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1/02/2015 Notes about Cyber Attacks

In this post I'd like to share with you  some  interesting notes that I've been collecting for a while, about cyberattacks and other cyber'put your word here lol' that we hear everyday in the news and maybe knowing that all the journalist and press in general are always doing mistakes in the usage of the words.

According to  the book "Inside Cyber Warfare"  This is an increasing field that has been taken as part of the patrimony of all nations.

There is a growing awareness of the vulnerability of a nation’s critical infrastructure to
network attack. Transportation, banking, telecommunications, and energy are among
the most vulnerable systems and may be subject to the following modes of attack:
• Insider threats
• Anonymous access to protected networks via the Internet and Supervisory Control
and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
• Counterfeit hardware
• Employee abuse of security guidelines leading to malware propagation inside the
So what would it happend if your country is under one cyber attack? What Would you do ?, here  is something that you could do assuming that everything is connected (knowing that this is happening right now with the Internet of Things concept ).

Keep this things :

  1. A battery-powered radio capable of receiving NOAA alerts and two-way radios (walkie-talkies)
  2. solar-powered or hand-cranked radio as well
  3. Cash reserve should be kept within reach
  4. Social Security cards and other essential documents should also be held in a secure container,since access to a computer won’t be guaranteed
  5. Prepare a central point to speak with your family members take out power lines and cell phone towers

Online safety tips

 • Limit the amount of personal information you post on social media sites, chat sites, forums and online games.

• Know and use privacy settings provided on sites like Facebook and Twitter.

• Be suspicious of unknown links or requests sent through email or text messages. Don’t click on unknown links or answer strange questions sent to your mobile device, regardless of who the sender appears to be.

• In your email, turn off the option to automatically download attachments. Save and scan any attachments before opening them.

• Verify the authenticity of requests from companies or individuals by contacting them directly, especially if you are being asked to provide personal information.

• Pay close attention to website URLs. Malicious websites sometimes use a variation in common spelling (petfun.com instead of petfun.net, for example) to deceive unsuspecting computer users.

Links :

The History of Cyber Attacks Timeline: 
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